Neurology is that branch of medicine which is concerned with study & treatment of nervous system disorders. Nervous system is a sophisticated & complex system which regulates & coordinates activities of the body, including the brain. Nervous system has two major divisions, namely the central nervous system & the brain & spinal cord. Doctors specializing in neurology are known as neurologists. Neurologists treat disorders affecting the nerves, spinal cord & the brain. These disorders include demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system like multiple sclerosis & of the cerebrovascular diseases like stroke.
During neurological examinations, a neurologist will review the patients’ health history with special emphasis on present condition. Typically, examinations will include function of cranial nerves (including vision), coordination, reflex action, strength, sensation & mental status as well.
Collection of this data will help the neurologist determine if the problem is clinically localized or dwells within the central nervous system. Localization of pathology is the key process which enables neurologists in developing differential diagnosis. Further tests may however be required to confirm diagnosis & arrive at therapy for appropriate management.
Also known as neurological surgery, neurosurgery is a medical specialty which is concerned with diagnosis, surgical treatment, rehabilitation & prevention of disorders affecting any portion of the nervous system including extra-cranial cerebrovascular system, peripheral nerves, spinal cord & the brain.