Most often this is the only option when a particular organ has reached end-state organ failure. Organ transplantation surgery in India is high-standard in technical expertise & normally involve heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus & intestine. Tissues which are also selectively transplanted include musculoskeletal grafts like bones & tendons, heart valves, cornea, skin, veins, & nerves. By far heart transplant & kidney transplantation are the most frequent organ transplants carried out globally. Accepted as the best treatment for end stage organ failures, organ procurement for all types of transplantation procedures can, however, be cumbersome.
Replacement of a failing organ with another persons’ healthy organ is generally stated as Organ Transplant. Organs which are mostly transplanted include Heart, Kidney, Lung, Liver, Pancreas, Small Intestine & the list goes on. Multiple organs can be transplanted at a time, for instance, lung & heart can be transplanted in a single surgery.
Kidney Transplantation is also known as Renal Transplantation. This organ transplant of kidney into a patient with end-stage renal failure is typically classified as living-donor or deceased-donor transplantation depending upon the source of donor organ. Regardless of primary cause indication for kidney transplant is an end-stage renal failure.
Common diseases leading to this medical condition include diabetes mellitus, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, infections & malignant hypertension. Genetic factors indicating kidney transplant include polycystic kidney disease, variety of inborn errors of metabolism & autoimmune medical conditions like lupus. The majority of prospective recipients for renal transplant are on dialysis & expecting transplantation as viable medical solution.
Liver Transplantation is also known as Hepatic Transplantation. It involves replacing a diseased liver with a healthy one from another person. Orthotropic Transplantation is the most common technique used for Liver Transplant where the native liver is replaced by donor organ in the same anatomic location. Liver Transplant is one of the most viable treatment options for acute liver failure in end-stage liver disease.
This surgical procedure is quite demanding on medical professionals & operating time range between 4-18 hours depending upon outcome. Numerous sutures & an astomoses, reconnections & disconnections are required to be made for Liver Transplants to succeed. This surgical procedure also requires an eligible recipient with a well-calibrated cadaveric donor match. Potentially available to acute or chronic conditions resulting from irreversible liver dysfunction, advanced age & serious heart, pulmonary or other diseases may prevent transplantation.
Heart Transplant is also known as Cardiac Transplant. This surgical transplantation procedure is normally performed on patients with severe coronary artery disease or end-stage heart failure. A common procedure involves extracting a working heart from recently diseased organ donor & implanting this into the patient. Patients own heart is either removed or sometimes left in place as support to donor heart. Though it is no cure for heart disease but life-saving treatment, post-operational survival period records average 15 years.
Lung Transplantation is also known as Pulmonary Transplantation. It is a surgical procedure where patient’s diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by donor’s lungs. Donor’s lungs are retrieved from living or deceased donors. In the case of a living donor, it is only possible to receive just one lung lobe which is sufficient in some lung disease conditions. However, with other lung diseases like cystic fibrosis, it is imperative that recipients obtain two lungs. Though Lung Transplants come with certain associated risks, they at the same time also enhance quality of life & extend expectancy for patients with end-stage pulmonary diseases.
Pancreas Transplant involves implanting healthy pancreas that can produce insulin, into a person who is suffering from diabetes. The pancreas is a vital organ assisting digestion. Without disturbing the patient’s native pancreas, the new donor pancreas is attached at a different location. The idea is to survive on under-functional native pancreas in the event of rejection of donor pancreas.
New, healthy pancreas, generally come from donors who have recently died. Presently, Pancreas Transplants are performed for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. General complications associated with Pancreas Transplant surgery include bleeding, infection, pancreatitis, thrombosis & rejection which may immediately occur or at any time in future life.
Intestine Transplantation is also known as Intestinal Transplantation or Small Bowel Transplantation. This is a surgical replacement procedure of small intestine for acute & chronic cases of intestinal failure. Though cases of intestinal failure can often successfully be treated with alternative therapies, associated complications like liver disease & short bowel syndrome make Intestine Transplant appear as the only viable option. Intestine Transplant is a rare type of organ transplantation surgical procedure but which is increasingly becoming prevalent as a therapeutic option due to surgical advances, immunosuppressive regimens & clinical management.
Not everyone is an ideal candidate for organ Transplant. You will have to undergo tests at the transplant center & qualify. You will not be a good candidate in case you have infections, heart disease beyond control, alcohol or drug problems, or any other serious health care issue. Then perhaps, if you are selected, will be put on a waitlist. The essential things that are checked before organ transplantation are: